John Davies (1949 − )
John Davies was born in Sedgefield, Co Durham and studied at Trent Polytechnic in Nottingham. In 1992 he was made a fellow of the Royal Photographic Society. After graduating in 1974, he spent six years photographing the rural and isolated landscapes of the British Isles. In 1981, after winning a one year Photographic Fellowship at Sheffield Polytechnic, he became increasingly interested in trying to understand how the urban, rather than the rural, landscape evolved. Photographing the Northern English town of Sheffield, he began to document not only the topography of the city, but also its archaeology. In the following years, he focused on the role of the great 19th Century industries (cotton, steel, coal) played in shaping the physical environment of the north of England. In a manner not unlike the painter J M W Turner, who chose a steam train to represented 19th Century progress, the industrial structures Davies selected became functional symbols of social and capital growth. The exploration of the mutual relationship between social and industrial history was amongst Davies' concerns, but it was never casually undertaken, rather always preceded by detailed research of the site and in his choice of high vantage points, which concentrate attention on the relationship between the sky and the earth, void and mass. Black and white, Davies' sweeping panoramas echo the formal symmetry of Dutch 17th century landscape painting.
Documentary Dilemmas Aspects of British Documentary Photography 1983-1993, The British Council 1994
The term ‘Documentary’ was not coined until the 1920s, and then used by the British film-maker, John Grierson, to refer to moving pictures. It has a long and continuous history in British photography, reaching back to the invention of the medium. Many critics claimed that the documentary impulse, which can perhaps be best defined as the systematic recording of visual reality for the purpose of providing information and encouraging understanding of the world, is inherent in the medium itself. It was this view which came to be known as the realist paradigm - the belief that a photograph represents a ‘slice of reality’ easily understood by the viewer. This belief governed understanding of photography from the moment of its invention in the era of positivism in the 19th Century, until it was itself subject to interrogation in the 1980s.
Early British practitioners included John Thomson whose visual essay Street Life in London (1876) documented the life of the London poor, and Hill and Adamson who portrayed, in the mid 1840s, the customs and way of life of the fisher folk of Newhaven near Edinburgh. In the early 20th century, following the emergence of documentary film-making and Mass Observation (a study undertaken in the North of England by the anthropologist Tom Harrisson), this new aesthetic found its most persuasive outlet in the mass circulation weekly magazines, such as Picture Post and Life. In time, however, pressure from advertisers combined with the restrictions of group journalism and curtailed the independence of creative photographers, with only exceptional individuals such as Bill Brandt able to survive as both a photojournalist and an independent photographer. His images of Britain’s class-ridden society along with his more experimental nudes, portraits and landscapes had a profound influence on a younger generation and established Brant as a major creative force in the development of modernism in Britain.
Mass Observation was designed to emulate the radical achievements of the worker-photography movement which had arisen in Germany during the 1920s. It proved influential on the evolution of British documentary, especially on those photographers associated with the Side Gallery in Newcastle. The gallery fostered a regional, community-oriented form of documentary practice. Its philosophy was rooted firmly in the notion that an authentic document can only be generated by those familiar with the local community. Photographers associated with Side Gallery included Sirkka Konttinen, Isabella Jedrecyck, Graham Smith, Peter Fryer, Chris Killip and Julian Germain.
It was, however, across the Atlantic that the more enduring legacy concerning the ethics and status of documentary was to be found in the work of the photographers employed by the Farm Security Administration to document the plight of the American rural poor during the Depression. One of its outstanding photographers was Walker Evans whose use of signs and symbols (such as billboards and advertising hoardings) as images of desire created a text or narrative to accompany the careful sequencing of images. The direct inheritors of the photograph as social sign were the American photographers of the ‘social landscape’, namely Lee Friedlander, Garry Winogrand and Diane Arbus whose unsympathetic vision of the American landscape reflected the anxieties of urban life during the booming consumer decade - store fronts, billboards, graffiti and advertising. They chose to portray people, situations and artefacts in a casual and objective way that allowed the viewer to interpret the work freely; a strategy that became known as the ‘snapshot aesthetic’. One of those who experienced many of these developments first hand was the British photographer Tony Ray-Jones. His work was widely reproduced in the 1960s and his book A Day Off (1974) proved a particular inspiration for the generation of documentary photographers who developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The work of early documentary photographs can be found in the collections of the Royal Photographic Society www.rps.org)
The Mass Observation archive is held by the University of Sussex www.sussex.ac.uk/library/massobs/
The work of the Side Gallery can be seen at www.amber-online.com/gallery/
The archive for the Farm Security Administration is now in the Print and Reading Room Collections of the Library of Congress in Washington www.loc.gov/rr/print
Landscape is one of the principle genres of Western art. In early paintings the landscape was a backdrop for the composition, but in the late 17th Century the appreciation of nature for its own sake began with the French and Dutch painters (from whom the term derived). Their treatment of the landscape differed: the French tried to evoke the classical landscape of ancient Greece and Rome in a highly stylised and artificial manner; the Dutch tried to paint the surrounding fields, woods and plains in a more realistic way. As a genre, landscape grew increasing popular, and by the 19th Century had moved away from a classical rendition to a more realistic view of the natural world. Two of the greatest British landscape artists of that time were John Constable and JMW Turner, whose works can be seen in the Tate collection (www.tate.org.uk). There can be no doubt that the evolution of landscape painting played a decisive role in the development of Modernism, culminating in the work of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists . Since then its demise has often been predicted and with the rise of abstraction, landscape painting was thought to have degenerated into an amateur pursuit. However, landscape persisted in some form into high abstraction, and has been a recurrent a theme in most of the significant tendencies of the 20th Century. Now manifest in many media, landscape no longer addresses solely the depiction of topography, but encompasses issues of social, environmental and political concern.
Work of art made with paint on a surface. Often the surface, also called a support, is a tightly stretched piece of canvas, paper or a wooden panel. Painting involves a wide range of techniques and materials, along with the artist's intellectual concerns effecting the content of a work.
- Oman, Muscat, Bait Al Zubair Museum
- Kuwait, Kuwait City, Contemporary Art Platform
- Saudi Arabia, Al Kohbar, Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Science & Technology Center
- Saudi Arabia, Jeddah, Athr Gallery
- Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Riyadh National Museum
- Germany, Kolvenburg
- UK, London, Whitechapel Art Gallery
- UK, Newcastle, Laing Art Gallery
- Wales, Cardiff, National Museum Of Wales
- Sweden, Norrkoping, Arbets Museum
- Poland, Warsaw, Ujazdowski Castle Centre for Contemporary Arts
- UK, Penzance, The Exchange
- UK, Leeds, Leeds City Art Gallery
- UK, Carlisle, Tullie House
- Wales, Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth Arts Centre
- Greece, Athens, Hellenic American Union
- Greece, Thessaloniki, Museum Of Photography
- Poland, Katowice, Galeria Pusta
- Poland, Krakow, Muzeum Historii Fotografii
- Poland, Lodz, Galeria BWA
- Poland, Poznan, Galeria PF
- Romania, Bacau, Alfa Galleries
- Romania, Palace Of Culture
- Romania, Bucharest, National Theatre Galleries
- Slovakia, Bratislava, Broadcasting Gallery
- Czech Republic, Brno, House Of Artists
- Czech Republic, Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove Gallery Of Fine Arts
- Czechoslovakia, Prague, ULUV Exhibition Hall
- Italy, Padua, Assessatore
- Italy, Florence, Studio Marangoni
- Ireland, Dublin, Irish Gallery Of Photography
- Brazil, Blumenau, Galeria Da Prefeitura
- Brazil, Olinda, Museu De Arte Contemporanea
- Brazil, Recife, Shopping Centre
- Brazil, Rio De Janeiro, Paco Imperial
- Brazil, Sao Paulo, Museu De Arte De Sao Paulo